Thanks for your comment. I wasn’t familiar with Nataruk, and I’m very glad that I am. It certainly adds nuance to my understanding of early societies, although even with that, there seems to be some disagreement.
“However, a Brief Communication Arising published in Nature by Stojanowski and colleagues calls into question much of the alleged evidence of a “massacre”. Their critique centers on two main points. First, these authors suggest that much of the evidence of peri-mortem trauma identified by Mirazón Lahr et al. is equally — if not more — likely to have occurred after deposition, that is, after the skeletons were buried, intentionally or otherwise. Second, Stojanowski et al. disagree over the interpretation of the site formation processes.”
Even so, Nataruk was about 10,000 years ago, which is consistent with what I’ve published about humans being largely peaceful up until 12,000 years ago. I’m sure that access to limited resources had a lot to do with increased violence. At the time of the Aryan (Kurgan and other Proto-Indo-European) invasions that brought a more warlike and patriarchal way of life, there seem to also have been a lot of natural disasters as well.